Table 1

TABLE 1
REQUIRED CONTAINERS, PRESERVATION TECHNIQUES, AND HOLDING TIME FOR WATER SAMPLES
PARAMETER SAMPLE CONTAINER1 SAMPLE PRESERVATION2,3 RECOMMENDED HOLDING TIMES4
Bacterial Test:      
Coliform, fecal and total 250-mL P Cool, 4°C, 0.008% Na2S2O35 6 hours
Fecal streptococci 250-mL P Cool, 4°C, 0.008% Na2S2O35 6 hours
Inorganic Tests:      
Acidity 250-mL P Cool, 4°C 14 days
Alkalinity 250-mL P Cool, 4°C 14 days
Ammonia 100-mL P Cool, 4°C, H2SO4 to pH < 2 28 days
Biochemical oxygen demand 1-L P Cool, 4°C 48 hours
Bromide 100-mL P None required 28 days
Biochemical oxygen demand, carbonaceous 1-mL P Cool, 4°C 48 hours
Chemical oxygen demand 100-mL amber G Cool, 4°C, H2SO4 to pH < 2 28 days
Chloride 100-mL P None required 28 days
Chloride, total residual 250-L P None required Analyze immediately
Color 250-mL P Cool, 4°C 48 hours
Cyanide, total and amenable to chlorination 1-mL P Cool, 4°C, NaOH to pH > 12, 0.6 g asorbic acid 14 days6
Fluoride 100-mL P None required 28 days
Hardness 250-mL P HNO3 to pH < 2, H2SO4 to pH < 2 6 months
Hydrogen ion (pH) 100-mL P None required Analyze immediatley
kjeldahl and organic nitrogen 250-mL P Cool, 4°C, H2SO4 to pH < 2 28 days
Chromium VI 250-mL P Cool, 4°C 24 hours
Mercury 130 mL G HNO3 to pH < 2 28 days
Metals, except chromium VI and mercury 250-mL P HNO3 to pH < 2 6 months
Nitrate 100-mL P Cool, 4°C 48 hours
Nitrate-nitrite 100-mL P Cool, 4°C, H2SO4 to pH < 2 28 days
Nitrite 100-mL P Cool, 4°C 48 hours
Organic carbon 125-mL amber G Cool, 4°C, HCl or H2SO4 to pH < 2 28 days
Orthophosphate 100-mL P Filter immediately, cool, 4°C 48 hours
Oxygen, dissolved (Probe) G bottle & top None Required Analyze immediately
Winkler G bottle & top Fix on site and store in dark 8 hours
Phosphorus (elemental) G Cool, 4°C 48 hours
Phosphorus, total 250-mL P Cool, 4°C, H2SO4 to pH < 2 28 days
Residue, total 500-mL P Cool, 4°C 7 days
kResidue, filterable (TDS) 500-mL P Cool, 4°C 7 days
Residue, nonfilterable (TSS) 500-mL P Cool, 4°C 7 days
Residue, settleable 500-mL P Cool, 4°C 48 hours
Residue, volatile (VSS) 500-mL P Cool, 4°C 7 days
Silica 250-mL P Cool, 4°C 28 days
Specific Conductance 100-mL P Cool, 4°C 28 days
Sulfate 100-mL P Cool, 4°C 28 days
Sulfide 250-mL P Cool, 4°C, add zinc acetate plus sodium hydroxide to pH > 9 7 days
Sulfite 100-mL P None required Analyze immediately
Surfactants 1-mL P Cool, 4°C 48 hours
Temperature 100-mL P None required Analyze immediately
Turbidity 250-mL P Cool, 4°C 48 hours
Organic Tests:8      
Purgeable halocarbons 4 x 40-mL G, Teflon-lined septum Cool, 4°C, 0.008% Na2S2O35, or 0.06% ascorbic acid5 14 days
Purgeable aromatic hydrocarbons 4 x 40-mL G, Teflon-lined septum Cool, 4°C, 0.008% Na2S2O35, adjust pH to 4-510 or 0.06% ascorbic acid5 14 days
Acrolein and acrylonitrile 1-L G, Teflon-lined septum Cool, 4°C, 0.008% Na2S2O35 14 days
Phenols11 1-L G, Teflon-lined cap Cool, 4°C Extraction-7 days
Analysis-40 days
Benzidines11,12 1-L G, Teflon-lined cap Cool, 4°C, 0.008% Na2S2O35 Extraction- 7 days13
Phthalate esters11 1-L G, Teflon-lined cap Cool, 4°C Extraction-7 days
Nitrosamines11,14 1-L G, Teflon-lined cap Cool, 4°C, Store in dark,  0.008% Na2S2O35 Extraction-7 days
Analysis-40 days
Pesticides11 1-L G, Teflon-lined cap Cool, 4°C, pH 5-915 Extraction-7 days
Analysis-40 days
PCBs11 1-L G, Teflon-lined cap Cool, 4°C Extraction-7 days
Analysis-40 days
Nitroaromatics and isophorone11 1-L G, Teflon-lined cap Cool, 4°C, 0.008% Na2S2O35 Extraction-7 days
Analysis-40 days
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons11 1-L G, Teflon-lined cap Cool, 4°C, 0.008% Na2S2O35 Extraction-7 days
Analysis-40 days
Haloethers11 1-L G, Teflon-lined cap Cool, 4°C, 0.008% Na2S2O35 Extraction-7 days
Analysis-40 days
Chlorinated hydrocarbons11 1-L G, Teflon-lined cap Cool, 4°C Extraction-7 days
Analysis-40 days
TCDD11 1-L G, Teflon-lined cap Cool, 4°C, 0.008% Na2S2O35 Extraction-7 days
Analysis-40 days
Total organic halogens 500-mL amber G, Teflon-lined cap Cool, 4°C H2SO4 to pH < 2 28 days
Total petorleu hydrocarbons 1-L G, Teflon-lined cap Cool, 4°C HCl to < 2 28 days
Phenols, total recoverable 1-L G Cool, 4°C, H2SO4 to pH < 2 28 days
Oil and grease 1-L G Cool, 4°C, H2SO4 to pH < 2 28 days
Radiological Tests:      
Alph, beta and radium P,G HNO3 to pH< 2 6 months

Footnotes:

  1. Polyethylene (P) or Glass (G). In cases where more than one inorganic parameter with the sample preservative is required, a single sample container of sufficient size for all analyses is usually preferred. Such grouping of parameters will be indicated when bottles are provided for client sampling.
  2. Sample preservation should be performed immediately upon sample collection. For composite chemical samples, each aliquot should be preserved at the time of collection. When use of an automated sampler makes it impossible to preserve each aliquot, chemical samples may be preserved by maintaining at 4?C until compositing and sample splitting are completed.
  3. When any sample is to be shipped by common carrier or sent through the United States mail, it must comply with the Department of Transportation Hazardous materials Regulations (49 CFR Part 172). The person offering such material for transportation is responsible for ensuring such compliance. For the preservation requirements, the Office of Hazardous Materials, Materials Transportation bureau, Department of Transportation has determined that the Hazardous Material Regulations do not apply to the following: Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) in water solutions at concentrations of 0.04% by weight or less (pH about 1.96 or greater); Nitric Acid (HNO3) in water solutions at concentrations of 0.15% by weight or less (pH about 1.62 or greater); Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in water solutions at concentrations of 0.35% by weight or less (pH about 1.15 or greater); and Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in water solutions at concentrations of 0.080% by weight or less (pH about 12.30 or less).
  4. Samples should be analyzed as soon as possible after collection. The times listed are the maximum times that samples may be held before analysis and still be considered valid.
  5. Sodium thiosulfate or ascorbic acid may be used only if residual chlorine is present. The dechlorination agent and hydrochloric acid must not be combined in pre-preserved vials.
  6. Maximum holding time is 24 hours when sulfide is present. Optionally, all samples may be tested with lead acetate paper before pH adjustments in order to determine if sulfide is present. If sulfide is present, it can be removed by the addition of cadmium nitrate powder until a negative spot test is obtained. The sample is filtered and then NaOH is added to pH 12.
  7. Samples should be filtered immediately on-site before adding preservative for dissolved metals.
  8. Guidance applies to samples to be analyzed by GC, LC, or GC/MS for specific compounds.
  9. Sample receiving no pH adjustments must be analyzed within seven days of sampling.
  10. The ph adjustment is not required if acrolein will not be measured. Samples for acrolein receiving no ph adjustment must be analyzed within three days of sampling.
  11. When the extractable analytes of concern fall within a single chemical category, the specified preservative and maximum holding times would be observed for optimum safeguard of sample integrity. When the analytes of concern fall within two or more chemical categories, the sample may be preserved by cooling to 4?C, reducing residual chlorine with 0.008% sodium thiosulfate, storing in the dark, and adjusting the pH to 609; samples preserved in this manner may be held for seven days before extraction and for forty days after extraction.

Environmental Images

Landfills and residential areas are often close. Here a gas monitoring well is installed between a landfill and adjacent residence to provide early warning of gas migration toward the structure.Landfills and residential areas are often close. Here a gas monitoring well is installed between a landfill and adjacent residence to provide early warning of gas migration toward the structure.
Landfills and residential areas are often close. Here a gas monitoring well is installed between a landfill and adjacent residence to provide early warning of gas migration toward the structure.